About 55 percent of Iran’s surface is covered with mountains and 45 percent are covered by plains and plains, and lakes and hammones (deserts) and numerous salt mines. The mountains of Iran are divided into four North, Zagros, Central and West (Eastern) districts.
he North Range or Alborz, which has a length of 950 kilometers and covers an area of 51500 square kilometers or about 3 percent of the country’s surface, is part of the great Alpine and Himalayan folds.
This field starts from Ardebil province and runs east to the south of the Caspian Sea and joins the eastern mountains of northern Khorasan.
The highest point of Iran, ie Damavand Mountain, is 5671 meters high in this field. Other mountains such as Mountain Science (4650 m), Siahlan (4175 m), Neck Palon (4375 m) and Shahver (3945 m) are also in this field.
The Zagros Range, the largest and longest mountain range in Iran, starts from West Azarbaijan Province. After crossing the provinces of Kurdistan, Hamedan, Kermanshah, Ilam, Lorestan, Khuzestan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, Bushehr and Fars and Hormozgan continue to the north of the Strait of Hormuz, where it joins the central mountain range of Iran and the Makran Range
. The Zagros Mountain Range, with a length of about 1,400 km and a width between 100 and 300 km, covers an area of 323000 km2 or 20% of the country’s total area. The highest peak is the Zagros, Dinar Mountains or Dena Mountains, with a height of 4409 meters.
Among the other high mountains of Zagros, the mountains of the slave-bay (3602 m), Shahur (3309 m), Peru (3357 m), Alvand (3580 m) Oshtarankh (4050 m), Zardkouh (4225 m) and Karag Faragan 3267 m).
The central Iranian mountain range extends along the great Iranian diameters from the northwest to the southeast and connects East Azarbaijan Province to the Sistan and Baluchestan mountains.
The length of the central mountain range is 1460 kilometers and its average width is 80 kilometers and covers an area of 143000 square kilometers or 8.5 percent of the country’s total area.
The 1,000th mountain is 4465 m high in the mountains of this field. The mountains of Laleh Zar (4351 m), Jupar (4135 m), Pivar (4233 m) and Shirkuh (4000 m), the other high mountains of this field Are considered.
The east (east) mountains of Iran are a discontinuous mountain range that begins from the north of Khorasan and extends south to Sistan and Baluchestan or the Makran Mountains. Mount Taftan with a height of 3941 meters is the highest mountain of this field.
The mountains of Bazman (3503 m), Bakhran (2595 m), Ahangaran (2831 m), Forty tens (3013 m), Binalud (3211 m) and a thousand mosques 3040 m) are among the other important mountains.
In addition to the high four mountain range, other mountains are scattered around the country, most notably the relatively high mountains that separate the plain from the Lute Quay. Mount Nayaband is 3009 meters high, the highest peak in this group
The midst of the northern mountains or the Alborz, the central field and the eastern mountains, have been traversed into vast deserts called Plain Kavir and Kavir Lut, and other deserts such as Hamoon Kashmourian and Abarkuh Abiruhk and others have been placed in the midst of other disciplines.
In addition to these plains and deserts, there are other plains such as the coastal plain of Bushehr province, Khuzestan plain, Caspian coastal plain and Moghan plain, which are not similar to Iran’s plains and inland diving soils, Areas of the flow have come about.
Source: Iranian Geosciences Co., Vol. III – Geographic Encyclopedia of Iran – By Mohammad Abbas Jafari – First Edition, 2000. Design, Lithography and Printing from the Geographical Institute and the Cartography of Githa.